Are the northern white rhinoceros extinct? The answer is two white rhinos left. That means northern white rhinoceros are not extinct. The good news is that scientists may have just saved the northern white rhino from extinction. The Greek words rhino (nose) and ceros are combined to form the term rhinoceros (horn). There are five types of rhinoceros that are still in existence: the white, black, larger one-horned, Javan, and Sumatran.
The names of several additional creatures also contain the word “rhinoceros,” including the rhinoceros auklet, rhinoceros beetle, rhinoceros chameleon, rhinoceros cockroach, rhinoceros fish, rhinoceros hornbill, rhinoceros iguana, rhinoceros rat snake, rhino shrimp, and rhinoceros viper. They all have horn-like projections on their noses.
Pachyderms is another term used to describe rhinos. Pachys (thick) and derma are two additional Greek terms that contribute to the name pachyderm (skin). Several thick-skinned species, such as rhinos, tapirs, horses, elephants, hippos, pigs, peccaries, and hyraxes, were once categorized as pachyderms by zoologists. Although this categorization is no longer seen to be relevant, the term is nevertheless occasionally used.
A stylish semi-captive rhino has died in Kenya recently. After several months of ill health in “Sudan”, a 45-year-old northern white rhinoceros, Vets fell asleep after deciding that his condition had deteriorated to a point where pain and quality of life were unacceptable.
They have been protected and managed for more than a century, and they are currently considered to be Near Threatened, with over 18,000 animals living in protected areas and private game reserves. Of the five rhino species, they are the only ones that are not in danger. White rhinos have intricate social systems. Only two unique female northern white rhinos are still thought to exist in the world. They are thus technically extinct. Najin and Fatu are their names.
From a conservation point of view, this doesn’t seem to matter. Sudan was an old rhino. He was good at breeding age. So why did his death headline?
Sudan was the last surviving male northern white rhinoceros, to scientists a subspecies known as Ceratotherium simum suti, which was extinct in the wild from hunting nearly 20 years ago. He was the last wild-caught northern white rhino, captured and removed from the wild in 1975. Sudan’s daughter-in-law, Nazan, and granddaughter Fatu, are now both married and have mates, but they are both old and unable to reproduce.
This is a strange situation. On the one hand, it matters a lot. The white rhinoceros in the north is extinct, it still does not know it. Conservationists refer to this population as the “living dead.”
A vial of frozen skin cells may be used to make a herd of northern white rhinos in four (huge) steps: (1) Create stem cells from skin cells. (2) Transform those stem cells into sperm and egg cells. (3) Create an embryo by fertilizing the egg with sperm. (4) Insert the embryo into a female rhinoceros’ womb, where it will grow into a young rhinoceros.
The issue with this tactic is that no one is aware of how to carry out any of these procedures in white rhinos. However, the experts at the San Diego Zoo have made substantial progress on all of them over the past three years.
An egg has to be developed and live in order to be fertilized. These conditions are often met by the environment that the ovaries maintain. However because they will produce and fertilize northern white rhino eggs in a lab, researchers need to develop methods for simulating the ovarian environment. Finding a Goldilocks Zone is necessary for this situation as well; the temperature, nutrition, and hormone concentrations, and the carbon dioxide to oxygen ratio all need to be precisely perfect.
The Goldilocks Zone was discovered using southern white rhinoceros (SWR) eggs since the investigators lacked access to northern white rhinoceros eggs. For many years, the only eggs available to the researchers were those taken after a SWR had died, which are not nearly as healthy as eggs taken from live rhinos. They were able to keep these eggs alive, even though they were never able to get them to develop. They ultimately acquired healthy eggs in March 2020.
“We gathered 22 [eggs] from our females at the rhino rescue facility just before COVID struck and shut down everything. And we really developed an embryo, with a 50% maturation rate, which was great for our first try, according to Barbara Durrant, SDZ’s director of reproductive sciences. The study team intends to gather additional SWR eggs over the next weeks so they may keep honing their approach.
Northern white rhinoceros are not extinct
On the other hand, does it really matter? Despite being relentlessly abused in the media (and some controversy among scientists), northern whites are recognized as “simply” a tribe of white rhinoceros. The southern white rhinoceros, associated with it, is Ceratotherium cilium sycamore, of which about 20,000 remain. The species as a whole is not endangered at present.
South white rhinoceros to rescue
The importance of the near extinction of the northern white rhinoceros is that the white rhinoceros survives through southern sub-subspecies that (with help) may be able to replace the northern white rhinoceros in its historical range throughout Central Africa. Doing so can fill the empty ecological niche.
Scientists may have just saved the northern white rhino from extinction
DNA has been preserved from the 3 northern white rhinoceros that have died in recent years, including Sudan, and will be similar to frozen eggs and sperm. The embryos produced were then transplanted into the surrogate female southern white rhinoceros. I recently spoke with Thomas Hildebrand, a leading professor of reproductive breeding and the guide to this technique, and he believes it will work.
If these optimistic plans work, the first northern white rhino calf born since 2000 can be made before the death of two wives. The alternative is to produce genetically engineered baby rhinoceroses that are a hybrid of both northern and southern breeds. If white elephant hybrids are planned to be resurrected by hybridization with Indian elephants, a white rhinoceros hybrid is not acceptable.
Yet, we are not talking about saving a subspecies from extinction, but regenerating extinct subspecies – this is a more challenging proposition.
With only two members of the species remaining, a successful egg harvest and fertilization do not mean all is lost.
Things don’t look too good for the iconic northern white rhinoceros. With the 2018 death of Sudan, the world’s last male of the species, only two females remain – and neither of them is capable of carrying a viable pregnancy.
Once wandering the grasslands of Uganda, Chad, Sudan, the Central African Republic, and the Democratic Republic of Congo, widespread predators and civil war have pushed the northern white rhino almost to extinction.
Now, however, an international association of scientists and conservationists has completed a process that can protect this species from eternity.
On August 22, 2019, veterinarians succeeded in collecting eggs from two females named Nazan and Fatu, who live in the Ol Pazeta Conservancy in Kenya. Before trying white whites in the north, girls were never given general anesthesia for this procedure – where doctors used an inquiry conducted by ultrasound – which was created after years of research and practice.
Seven of the ten eggs that have been harvested have successfully matured and were artificially involved in the uterus through ICSI (intra-cytoplasm sperm injection) with frozen sperm from northern white rhinoceros bulls that died in 2014 and 2018. If a successful embryo development follows, the white rhinoceros surrogate will migrate to the soil.
“The number of cut oocytes is a tremendous breakthrough and evidence that unique collaboration between scientists, zoologists, and conservationists in the field can create optimistic prospects for even the animals that are facing a horrific extinction,” said Jane Stageskal of the Dover Kloev Zoo, where two rhinoceros were born.
“At the ongoing CITES meeting in Geneva, the global resolution to save white rhinoceros in the world should be guided by the resolution that is needed worldwide. The assisted reproductive strategy can draw the world’s attention to the plight of all rhinoceros and we must avoid the decision to harm law enforcement. Demand for fuel, “Hon added B. Balala, Kenya’s tourism and wildlife Cabinet Secretary.
Although the process seemed a bit clinical – there was no fermentation in the grassland here – it was by no means cruel. The whole process was first carried out with ethics and within the framework created by other scientists and veterinarians involved in ethics and methodology. “We have created a dedicated ethical risk analysis to prepare the team for all the possible scenarios of this nationally ambitious approach,” says Barbara De Mori, conservation and animal welfare ethicist. “Specialist from the University of Padua. This is a bittersweet moment for sure
“On one hand, Ol ‘Pageetta is sad that we have now landed on the last two northern rhinos on the planet, as proof that the human race is in contact with the natural world around us. But we are also very proud,” said Richard, who is part of a groundbreaking work to rescue this species now. We hope this indicates the beginning of an era where Manu Proper management of the environment that understands the end of a necessity rather than a luxury, “Richard said. Vigne, Managing Director of Owl Pageant.
8 Tips How To Save Northern White Rhinoceros
In the urgent quest to safeguard the critically endangered Northern White Rhinoceros, a species teetering on the precipice of extinction, a concerted and multifaceted effort is imperative. With only a meager handful remaining, the sense of urgency invokes a moral responsibility to secure the species for the well-being of future generations. This essay meticulously outlines eight pivotal strategies, ranging from habitat conservation to cutting-edge reproductive technologies, forming a comprehensive roadmap to navigate the perilous path of species survival.
1. Habitat Conservation
At the core of Northern White Rhinoceros preservation lies the meticulous task of securing and rejuvenating their natural habitats. These expansive landscapes, pulsating with diverse ecosystems, stand as the lifeblood for the colossal creatures on the brink of oblivion. Conservation initiatives must transcend mere protection, prioritizing the meticulous restoration of these environments. Addressing issues like deforestation, soil erosion, and water pollution necessitates strategic planning and sustainable practices, ensuring the enduring viability of these habitats—a sanctuary for the Northern White Rhinoceros to not merely survive but to flourish and propagate.
2. Community Engagement
A pivotal dimension of the conservation paradigm is the active engagement of local communities. Fostering a harmonious coexistence between humans and rhinos demands comprehensive education programs, highlighting the ecological significance of these creatures. Through such initiatives, communities can cultivate empathy and a shared responsibility for the survival of the Northern White Rhinoceros. Beyond awareness, active involvement in anti-poaching endeavors and the promotion of ecotourism becomes paramount. These measures not only deter illicit activities but also create economic incentives, fostering a sense of stewardship and shared ownership in the collective effort to conserve this majestic species.
3. Anti-Poaching Measures
The nefarious threat of poaching casts a looming shadow over the Northern White Rhinoceros. Robust anti-poaching measures are the bulwark against the illegal trade in rhino horns that fuels their demise. This necessitates a sophisticated approach, integrating increased surveillance, the deployment of cutting-edge technology such as drones and sensors, and collaborative efforts with law enforcement agencies. Strengthening legislation and penalties against poachers, coupled with international cooperation, emerges as a formidable deterrent, alleviating the relentless pressure on these magnificent creatures and offering them a chance at survival.
4. Research and Monitoring
A meticulous understanding of the Northern White Rhinoceros’s behavior, genetics, and health is indispensable for effective conservation. Ongoing research initiatives, harnessing cutting-edge technologies like DNA analysis, satellite tracking, and health monitoring, serve as a beacon of enlightenment. This continuous monitoring not only facilitates prompt responses to emerging threats but also ensures the success of breeding programs. The insights gleaned contribute to the adaptive management of the species in their natural habitats, a critical component in the intricate tapestry of their preservation.
5. Reproductive Technologies
Confronted with the dire scarcity of viable breeding pairs, the adoption of assisted reproductive technologies becomes a poignant imperative for the Northern White Rhinoceros. In vitro fertilization (IVF) and advanced reproductive techniques emerge as beacons of hope for bolstering the dwindling population. Collaborative endeavors between conservationists, veterinarians, and reproductive specialists become crucibles of innovation, navigating the intricate challenges associated with artificial insemination and embryo transfer. In this realm of scientific exploration lies the promise of infusing optimism into the race against extinction.
6. International Collaboration
The conservation imperative for the Northern White Rhinoceros transcends geopolitical boundaries, demanding a global alliance. International collaboration becomes the crucible for the exchange of knowledge, resources, and expertise. Joint initiatives facilitate the relocation of individuals to safer habitats, diversifying the gene pool and fortifying the genetic resilience of the species. Collaborative research endeavors, diplomatic efforts, and shared conservation strategies weave an interconnected web, striving to salvage the Northern White Rhinoceros from the precipice of oblivion.
7. Sustainable Funding
Sustaining the intricate dance of conservation demands a robust financial foundation. Securing funding from diverse sources—government grants, private donations, and corporate sponsorships—ensures the continuity of conservation projects. Investing in sustainable practices, eco-tourism ventures, and innovative fundraising campaigns not only fortifies financial resilience but also raises awareness. This broadened awareness, in turn, garners broader support for the plight of the Northern White Rhinoceros, ensuring that the threads of conservation are woven into the fabric of societal consciousness.
8. Public Advocacy and Awareness
At the epicenter of the Northern White Rhinoceros’s salvation lies the potent force of public advocacy and awareness. Leveraging media platforms, educational campaigns, and social networks becomes the resonant echo amplifying the urgency of their predicament. Celebrities, influencers, and public figures, through lending their voices to the cause, become catalysts for mobilizing a global audience to stand as guardians of these magnificent creatures. The collective consciousness, when awakened, possesses the transformative power to steer the Northern White Rhinoceros away from the precipice, ushering them towards a future teeming with hope and resilience. Motivation – Mind – Success – Thinking – Productivity – Happiness
The salvation of the Northern White Rhinoceros is an intricate tapestry woven with threads of comprehensive and concerted efforts. By addressing habitat conservation, community engagement, anti-poaching measures, research and monitoring, reproductive technologies, international collaboration, sustainable funding, and public advocacy, humanity can forge a path toward ensuring the continued existence of this extraordinary species. The synergy of these strategies holds the key to breaking the shackles of endangerment and guiding the Northern White Rhinoceros towards a future where they roam freely in the wilderness, safeguarded by the collective commitment of humanity.
Other Recommended Reading
- White Rhino Population Graph over Time in the World
- Rhino Horn Trade – Ban | Fact | History | Statistics
- Javan Rhinoceros – Does a Rhino Have Two Hearts?
- Sumatran Rhinoceros – Why are Sumatran Rhinos Important?
- African Rhino Extinct – Conservation Efforts Taken
- Where do Black Rhino Live -Black Rhinoceros Habitat
- Interesting Facts about White Rhinos
- Northern White Rhinoceros – Northern White Rhino Facts
- Are the Northern White Rhinoceros Extinct?
- African Rhino Facts – Why is the Black Rhino Important?
- Black Rhino Hunting – Why are Black Rhinos Hunted?
- White Rhino Diet – How much do White Rhinos Eat?
- Why are White Rhinos Endangered
- Javan Rhino Conservation
- How many Rhinos are there in the World?
- Is a Rhino Horn made of Bone or Ivory?
- How Much Does a Rhino Horn Weigh?
- What do White Rhinos Eat for Survival?
- White Rhino Extinct – Can We Save the White Rhino?
- White Rhino Conservation – How did White Rhinos go Extinct?