Javan Rhinoceros – Does a Rhino have Two Hearts?

(Last Updated On: April 8, 2021)

Thinking of surviving only in the Uzun Kulon National Park on the western edge of Java, Javan rhinoceros were once widely spread across India, Bhutan, Bangladesh, China, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia, and Indonesia.

javan rhinoceros

Javan Rhinoceros

Initially the numbers were reduced due to hunting, but the main threat to Rhinoceros was the loss of hunting and habitat. Illegal trafficking in birds and rhinoceroses has increased rapidly since 2007 and rhinoceros remains one of the leading causes of endangerment today.

Javanese rhinoceros (also known as Sunda rhinoceros), is a rare member of the rhinoceros family, and one of the five rhinoceroses is of the same genus as Indian rhinoceros and has the same mosaic, skin similar to Arma, but at length 1.5. -1.2 meters (3-5 feet) and height 5.7- 6 ft), it is smaller (closer to the size of the black rhinoceros in the Diceros gene), usually less than 25 cm (9.8 in) and smaller than other species of rhinoceros. Only adult males have horns; Girls are totally lacking in this.

At one time, the largest expanse of Asian rhinoceros was extending from the islands of Java and Sumatra to Southeast Asia and to India and China. The species is critically endangered, there is only one population in the wild, and no one is in captivity. It is probably the most rare mammal in the world, with a population of 5 to 61১ in the Uzung Kulon National Park in the west of Java, Indonesia. The second population at Cat Tien National Park in Vietnam was announced at 25. Javanese rhinoceros is mainly attributed to their horns, which are extremely valuable in traditional Chinese medicine and are available at Krishna Bazar for as little as US $ 1.5. [5]: As troop hunting became a serious threat, as the presence of Europeans increased. Habitat degradation, especially as a result of wars like the Vietnam War in Southeast Asia, has hampered species decline and recovery. The remaining range is in a national protected area, but the rhinoceros is still at risk from predators, disease, and genetic diversity, which leads to congenital depression.

Javan Gander can live in the wild for about 30-45 years. It histor historically lives in lowland rain forests, wetlands and large floodplains. This is often the case except in solitude, marriage courts and child rearing, though the parties may occasionally gather near walleye and salt leaves. Except for humans, adults have no predators in their range. Javanese rhinoceros usually avoids humans. Scientists and conservationists rarely study animals directly because of their extreme rarity and the danger of interfering with these endangered species. Researchers rely on camera traps and anus samples to examine health and behavior. As a result, Javanese rhinoceros is the least studied among all rhino species. A motion-triggered video released by the WWF and the National Park Authority of Indonesia on February 26, depicting two adult rhinoceros with their calves, proving that it is still bred in the wild. In April 2012, the National Park Authority released a video containing 35 Javanese hooligans, including mothers / offspring couples and adults. After the death of a male rhino named Samson, only 58 to 68 people remained in the wild and no one was captured. Samson died in April 2018 at the age of 30, far less than the normal life expectancy of the 50- to 60-year-old species, so DNA tests are being conducted to investigate the cause of death with the possibility of creative degradation.

The remaining Javanese rhinoceros live in incredibly dense forests, and the species has never been born in captivity. For these reasons, the average life expectancy is unknown, but it is probably between 30-40 years.

It is found in western Indonesia and eastern Indochina. Javan’s rhinoceros habitat is a tropical and sub-tropical moist broadleaf forest with raw walls and abundant water showing a preference for dense rainfall and low places.

Javan Rhino is officially extinct in Vietnam. A Javanese rhino in Vietnam is captured in a camera-trap photo. It’s official: There are no more rhinos in Vietnam. A huge woman, Javan Gander, who is approximately 15 to 25 years old, was shot dead in late April 20 and his horn was removed by a vein.


Javan rhinoceros is smaller than Indian rhinoceros and is very close to black rhinoceros. It is the largest animal in Java and the second largest animal in Indonesia after the Asian elephant. Javan rhinoceros with head is 2 to 4 meters (6.5 to 13 feet) in length and can reach a height of 1.4-11 meters (4.6-55.6 feet). Adults have been reported to weigh 900 to 2,300 kg (1,980 and 5,070 lbs) in various ways, though a study has never been done to collect accurate measurements of the animals and this is not a priority due to their ultimate preservation. No size difference can be seen between the sexes, but females can be somewhat larger. Based on photographic evidence and studies measuring their footprints, rhinos in Vietnam appeared to be significantly smaller than in Java.

Like Indian rhinoceros, Javan rhinoceroses have a single horn (the other existing species has two horns). Its horn is the smallest of all existing rhinoceroses, usually less than 20 cm (7.9 inches), less than the longest recorded only 27 cm (7 inches). Only men have horns. Female Javanese rhinoceros are the only common rhinoceros that remain hornless in puberty, though their small bumps of an inch or two in size may develop. Javanese rhinoceros often does not use its horns to fight, instead tossing mud into the wall, pulling plants for food and opening the way with thick vegetation. Like the other browsing species of rhinoceros (black and sumatra), Javan rhinoceros has long, pointed, upper lip that helps to grab food. Its lower incisors are long and sharp; Javanese rhinoceroses use these teeth when fighting. Behind the incisors, two rows of six low-crowned molasses are used to chew up thick plants. Like all rhinoceros, Javan rhinoceros smells and sounds good, but its vision is very bad. They are estimated to survive 30 to 45 years.

javan rhinoceros

Its hairless, splatch gray or grayish-brown skin folds over the shoulders, back and neck. The skin has a natural mosaic pattern, giving the rhinoceros an adorable look. Javanese rhinoceros neck folds are smaller than Indian rhinoceros, but still form a saddle shape on the shoulders. Because of the risk of interfering with such a national endangered species, however, Javan genders are studied primarily through facial sampling and camera traps. They are rarely encountered, monitored or directly measured.

Distribution and accommodation

Even the most optimistic estimate suggests that there are less than 100 Javanese rhinos in the forest. They are considered one of the most endangered species in the world. Javanese rhinoceros is known to survive in only one place, Uzun Kulon National Park on the western side of Java.

At one time this creature was widespread from Assam and Bengal (where their boundaries would have been overrun by both rhinoceros and Sumatra) and eastward to Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam and the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra Island to the south, and possibly Borneo Javan Gander. , Lowland rain forests, grasslands and straw beds with many rivers, large floodplains or many mud walls Lives in wet areas. Although it ically historically dominated the low-lying regions, subspecies of Vietnam were pushed to a much higher altitude (2,5 m or,, up to 561১ feet), probably due to human inattention and victimization.

The Javan rhino range has been shrinking for at least 3,000 years. From about 1000 BC, the northern range of rhinoceros extended to China, but every year, about 0.5 kilometers (0.31 miles) began to move south, as human settlements in the region increased. It was probably locally extinct in the first decade of the twentieth century. By 7, Javan rhino had become extinct on the Malay Peninsula. The last parts of Sumatra died during World War II. They disappeared from Chittagong and the Sundarbans in the mid-twentieth century. By the end of the Vietnam War, Vietnamese rhinos were believed to be extinct across mainland Asia. Local hunters and woodlands in Cambodia have claimed that Javan rhinos have been spotted in the Elach Mountains, but surveys in the area have failed to find any evidence. In the late 7’s, a small man was found in the Kat Tien area of ​​Vietnam. However, the last person in this population was shot in the 20th. A population may exist on the island of Borneo, though these specimens may be Sumatran rhinoceroses, of which a small population is still there.

Every two and a half to five years, a woman will reproduce rhinoceros. Female rhinoceroses carry their baby during the gestation period of 15 to 16 months. They usually only have one baby at a time, though they sometimes get twins.

Javanese rhinoceroses are vegetarians, eating a variety of plant species, especially their shoots, stalks, shrimp leaves and fallen fruits. Most of the plants supported by the species do not have large trees in forest areas, such as forest clearings, shrubs and other vegetation in sunny areas.

The goal of the RPU program is to prevent the extinction of Javanese rhinoceros and other threatened species, and to protect critical habitat in Java through intense resistance to destruction and habitat destruction.

Due to the large size, the only real predator of the Javan rhino wild is the large wild cats, such as tigers that will hunt the Javan rhinoceros bulls and the weak ones. Humans are the biggest threat to Javan rhinoceroses, as they are hunted to extinction for their horns.


Javanese rhinoceros is the only animal excluding mothers with reproductive joints and calves. They sometimes gather in small groups in salt lick and mud walleye. A common behavior of all rhinoceros is immersed in mud; Activity helps maintain their body’s cool temperature and helps prevent diseases and parasitic insects. Javanese rhinoceros do not usually dig their own mud walnuts, preferring to use other animal wallets or naturally occurring pits, which it will use to enlarge its horn. Salt licks are also very important because of the nutrients needed from the rhinoceros salt. The range of male households is larger than that of females, 32-23 km (৫1.52.3 miles), which is approximately 5-7 km (0.6-1.77 miles). Male regions are less connected to each other than women. It was not known if there were regional fights.

Men characterize their territories with cow dung and urine spray. Scraps made from feet on the ground and curved sapling also seem to be used for communication. Members of other rhinoceros have a strange habit of defecating in huge rhinoceros dung and then rubbing their legs in the dung. Sumatra and Javan rhinoceros do not engage in scraping while excreting in the pile. In practice this adaptation is considered ecosystem; In the wet forests of Java and Sumatra, the method may not be effective for spreading the odor. Javanese rhino is much less eloquent than Sumatra; Very few Javanese rhinoceros voices were recorded. Adults have no predators other than humans.

javan rhinoceros

The species, especially in Vietnam, returns to the dense jungle whenever people are nearby. Although valuable in terms of survival, it is difficult to study rhinoceros difficult. However, when people get very close, Javan rhinoceroses become aggressive and will attack, punching down the incisors of his lower jaw while pushing his head upwards. [5] Its relatively antisocial behavior may be a recent adaptation to population stress; evidence Historical evidence suggests that they were once more gregarious like other rhinoceros.


Javanese rhinoceroses are vegetarians, eating a variety of plant species, especially their shoots, stalks, shrimp leaves and fallen fruits. Most of the plants supported by the species do not have large trees in forest areas, such as forest clearings, shrubs and other vegetation in sunny areas. rhinoceros scatters the saplings to reach its food, and it grabs the upper lip. It is the most adaptive feeder of all rhino species. Currently, it is a pure browser, but it is likely both browsed and consumed in the historical historical range. Rhinoceros consumes an estimated 50kg (110 lb) of food per day. Like Sumatra rhinoceros, it requires salt in its diet. In the historical landscape, salt salts are not present in the Uzun Kulon, but the rhinoceros have been found drinking in sea water, probably in need of the same nutrients.


The main cause of the continued decline in Javan rhino population is hunting for horns, a problem that affects all rhinoceros species. The horns have been the product of business for over 2,000 years in China, where they are believed to have healing properties. Historically, rhinoceros have been used to make Chinese soldiers’ armor, and some native tribes in Vietnam believe that this hide may be used to prevent snake venom. As the magnitude of the rhinoceros surrounds many areas of poverty, it is understood to the locals that a seemingly (otherwise) useless animal cannot be sold for large sums of money to kill.

In the first Wild Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wildlife and Plants, the Javanese rhinoceros was completely protected under Appendix 1; All international trade in Javanese rhinoceros and its products is illegal. Black market surveys of rhinoceros have determined that Asian rhinoceros horns cost more than $ 30,000 per kg, three times the price of rhinoceros horns in Africa.

Like many Asian and African megaphones, Javan rhinoceros has been relentlessly hunted down by trophies and big-game hunters for decades after being brought under European control. Since the rhinoceros is an easy target, it is hunting for its horn as it contributes to its decline. The thing about big game hunting was that the plight of the rhino was reported to the world, only Javanese and (then unknown) Vietnamese population.

javan rhinoceros

The decline of habitat due to agriculture has also contributed to its decline, though this is no longer a matter of importance as the rhinoceros only lives in a national protected park.

Temporary habitat has prevented the recovery of rhinoceros victims. Even with all the efforts to save, their chances of survival are dire. Because the population is confined to a small area, they are very susceptible to disease and end-breeding depression. Conservation geneticists estimate that 100 species of rhinoceros will be needed to protect the genetic diversity of this conservation-dependent species.

When the rhinoceros face each other, they will use their vocal words to communicate. Its voice contains different types of words that are used to convey different situations and different messages. These words include the words Skiles, Snorts, Moose, Girls, and even horns.

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