Greater One Horned Rhino_

Greater One Horned Rhino – Facts, Size, Habitat, Weights

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(Last Updated On: December 18, 2022)

The scientific name of the greater one-horned rhino is: Rhinoceros unicornis, ‘uni’ means one, and the Latin ‘cornice’ means horn. In the early twentieth century, the number of large single-horned rhinoceros increased from less than 20 to about 5,7,650 for the strict protection of Indian and Nepalese wildlife authorities.

Greater one-horned rhinoceros are two great success stories of rhinoceros conservation. However, the pressure on the victim is high. Species recovery is still uncertain and depends on effective conservation efforts across its range.

The Indian rhinoceros is a rhinoceros species that is indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. It is also known as the Indian rhino, larger one-horned rhinoceros, or big Indian rhinoceros. Due to fragmented populations that are confined to an area of fewer than 20,000 km², it is categorized as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List. A solitary black horn that is 8 to 25 inches long and a grey-brown hide with skin wrinkles that give it an armor-plated appearance are characteristics of the bigger one-horned rhino.

A conservation success story is the larger one-horned rhino’s, or Indian, rhino’s, comeback. From fewer than 100 animals to more than 4,000 now, rhino populations have recovered due to rigorous protection by government officials in India and Nepal.

Common Names of greater head rhino

Large one-horned rhinoceros: Single refers to a large horn

Indian and/or Nepalese rhinoceros: Specifies the species range
Scientific names and sources

Greater one-horned rhino: Rhinoceros unicornis

Rhinoceros: from Greek “rhinoceros”, meaning “nose” and “seros”, meaning “horn” and “unicornis” from Latin “uni”, meaning “one” and “cornice”, meaning “horn”

Physical Properties


Weight: 4,000-6,000 lbs (1,800 – 2,700 kg)

Height: 5.75 – 6.5 ft (1.75 – 2.0 m) tall on the shoulder

Length: 10- 12.5 feet ( m) Head and body length


The larger one-horned rhinoceros have a single horn 8 to 24 inches (20 to 61 cm) long.

Other features

Brown-gray, hairless, with folds of skin that resemble armor plates with rivets. The upper lip is semi-anterior to grasp the branches and leaves.


Large one-horned rhinos live in northern India and southern Nepal, rivers (floodplains), grasslands, and adjacent timberlands.

The larger one-horned rhinoceros are greasers. When not grazing on land, animals prefer to be submerged in water, where they also feed on aquatic plants.

Pregnancy lasts about 15 – 16 months, and mothers give birth to a calf every 2 – 3 years.

Larger one-horned rhinoceros are usually left alone with young women without a wife. Men maintain loose-guarded zones.

Number and distribution of the current larger one-horn rhinoceros

Currently, about 3,550 – 3,600 large one-horned rhinoceros survive (IUCN Asian Rhinoceros Expert Group, 2013).

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Threat factors

One of the biggest threats facing the greater one-horned rhino is human harassment and occupation. For centuries the Gonds were hunted for sport and for their horns. In the early 19th century, Greater one-horned rhinos were almost extinct until the rest of the animals were found only in protected reservoirs, where the population was now being brought back to the brink of extinction under the supervision of certain agencies.

Due to the strict protection of the Indian and Nepalese wildlife authorities, the number of large single-horned rhinoceros has increased from around 25 in the last century to nearly six today. However, poaching remains high, and success is uncertain without continued support and increased support for conservation efforts in India and Nepal.

Destruction and loss of habitat of greater one-horned rhinos are a further threat to the population of Gonds. Since the large one-horned rhinoceros have very fertile soil, people use the same land for farming. Conflicts between humans and animals are inevitable and consequently harmful to the Greater one-horned rhino population.

The Mughal emperors of South Asia used large one-horned rhinoceros as entertainment in the fight against elephants. The rhinoceros often won. Thankfully, this sport is no longer practiced or allowed.

Physical Properties

Size: The larger one-horned rhinoceros is the second largest in the genus Guinea, killed only by white rhinoceros.

Weight: Typically 4-6,000 lbs (1,800-2,700 kg)

Shoulder Height: The large one-horned rhinoceros stands at about 1.75-2 m and is 3-3.8 m tall.

Skin color: They have an ash gray, hairless skin that develops thick folds, similar to armor plating. Several prominent folds of skin protect the neck. The maximum thickness of the skin is 4 cm. Subcutaneous fat is 2-5 cm thick and well supplied with blood; supports thermo-regulation, meaning that the animal is able to control its own body temperature under different weather conditions. In the folds, around the abdomen, the skin of the inner leg and mouth region becomes rather soft and thin.

Horn: The larger one-horned rhinoceros has a horn, which is usually 20-61 cm long and weighs up to 3 kg. It has the same horn structure as the straw of a horse and rises again when broken. It is not used for war, but for hunting food and for grass for roots

Hair: At the tip of the tail, around the ears and eyelids

Location and accommodation

Location: Large one-horned rhinoceros are found in India and Nepal, especially in the Himalayan foothills. In the past, large one-horned rhinoceroses roamed the Brahmaputra, Ganges, and Indus rivers, as well as floodplains and jungles.

Habitat: Large one-horned rhinoceroses are semi-aquatic and often live in watersheds, forests and river banks, and anywhere near nutrient mineral leaks.

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Imge Credit: San Diego Zoo

Social behavior and territory

Success: Larger one-horned rhinoceros are usually left alone, except for the young calf’s wife. Men have conveniently defined zones where they live alone, which they aggressively defend, and this can overlap with other zones. Regions vary according to the availability of food related to the current season. Women can enter and exit these areas as they like. If food is abundant in an area, it is not uncommon to see several animals grazing together.

Male territory: Men fight violently for the preferred habitat zone of the larger one-horned rhinoceros. The death of a man in one of these fights is not uncommon; This is usually after a few days due to the wounds drawn during the fight
Female territories: They overlap with other regions and also depend on the resources available in a particular region

Perfume identification: Rhinoceroses, or ‘midons’, serve as contact points and mark regional borders. Several animals defecate in the same place. This national cow dung can grow up to five meters wide and one meter high. Upon discharge, the Greater one-horned rhinoceros scratches their back legs in dung. As they continue to walk, they ‘transport’ their own scent around the trails, thus establishing an odor-marked trail that is questioned by odor.

Reproduction and Birth

Sexual maturity: Females can begin breeding at 4 years of age and males usually mature sexually by 9 years of age. There is no breeding season, and a female lasts about 3-4 years apart in the calf
Pregnancy Period: This is between 15-16 months. As he prepares to give birth to a child, the cow will find a lonely, quiet place for the calf
Birth: At birth, the larger one-horned rhinoceros calf can weigh 58-70 kg. The first one and a half years will be with his mother before the calf is rejected
Maternal Calf: A calf consumes 20-30 liters of milk on average every day which increases by 1-2 kg daily. They begin to nibble and feed in the roughage at 3-5 months of age but can suck up to 20 months of age. Young calves are also at risk of being hunted by wild tigers. Other interesting information

Food: They feed on a variety of plants (up to 183 different species!) With seasonal variations of plants: grass, fruit, leaves and shrubs and shrubs, submerged and floating aquatic plants, and agricultural crops. Larger one-horned rhinoceros eat up to 5% of their body weight daily and are known to swim for their food.

Wallowing: Clay wallow may be a place where multiple people get together, and after meeting, they will be separated again. Helps prevent thermo-regulation by protecting excess skin and preventing any ticks or parasites from being embedded on the surface of the skin.
Teeth: Although their horn may not be as long as the rhinoceros of other well-known species, the Greater One-horned rhinoceros have very long bottom incisor teeth that can be used to fight deep wounds. A man’s teeth can be up to 8 cm tall

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Image Credit: International Rhino Foundation

Sounds: The 12 most frequently used communication words are known in large one-horned rhinoceros, including snores, hanks, and roars

Forest paths: Larger one-horned rhinos have a tendency to use the same paths, which are characterized by a smelly gland beneath their feet. Signs of their urine and dung, which can be distributed on their feet, as well as serve as aromatic markers

Longevity: Large one-horned rhinoceros live on average 30-45 years in the wild, the longevity record for captives is up to 40 years.

Swimming: They are good swimmers and seem to be able to feed underwater with a dip, enjoying the cool, wet material of the surrounding lakes and rivers.

The senses: These smell a good idea and sound very good, but it is short-sighted

Running speed: Larger one-horned rhinoceros can run faster (40 km / h) and remain very agile even after their size and shape.

Unique Feature: Except for their unique ‘armor-plated’ look, they have a lot of upper lips like the black tendon, which helps to burn

Conservation status: Unprotected, meaning that the species is likely to be endangered unless its condition improves if it threatens its survival and reproduction.

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